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2017-2018 Season / Masterworks / Beethoven’s Eroica
All performances at 7:30pm at Crouse Hinds Concert Theater

LAWRENCE LOH | conductor

FAURE: Pelléas et Mélisande, op.80: Suite
SAINT-SAENS: Concerto, Violoncello, No.1, op.33, A minor
BEETHOVEN: Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, op.55 (Eroica)   
Shocking audiences since its premiere, Beethoven’s Symphony No. 3 will jolt you from its opening chords and move you through the energetic and transformative work. Music Director Lawrence Loh conducts this striking work, which is paired with Saint-Saens single movement Cello Concerto No. 1, performed by acclaimed young cellist Julian Schwarz.



Don't forget to come early for a special Spotlight Series performance by the Syracuse Children's Chorus, on the Crouse-Hinds Theater Stage, beginning at 6:30p.m.

The Bond, Schoeneck & King Pre-Concert Talk will be held in the Banner Room on the lower level of the Civic Center, beginning at 6:30p.m.


Special thanks to our concert sponsor!



Beethoven’s Eroica

7:30pm | Crouse Hinds Concert Theater
Listen on Spotify!

It’s hard to recapture the power that Maurice Maeterlinck’s symbolist drama Pelléas et Mélisande exerted when it first appeared in 1893. The play centers on the doomed passion between Pelléas and Mélisande, the wife of his half-brother Golaud—and it reaches its denouement when Golaud murders Pelléas and mortally injures Mélisande. Yet the desire, incest and fratricide are treated in an understated, allusive, even diaphanous way—and this disorienting combination of elements took Europe by storm. Within a little over a decade, Debussy, Schoenberg, Sibelius, and Fauré (not to mention the lesser-known William Wallace) had all provided musical settings, each with a different perspective on the play’s underlying ambiguities. Debussy’s opera, for instance, conjures up its ethereal, other-worldly character; Schoenberg’s massive tone poem centers on its angst-filled eroticism.

The incidental music by Gabriel Fauré (1845–1924) is perhaps the gentlest of the settings, as you might expect if you know his remarkably intimate Requiem (performed by Symphoria in 2015). The music was originally composed in 1898 for a British production, and orchestrated by Fauré’s pupil Charles Koechlin. Fauré later adapted Koechlin’s orchestration for a suite of excerpts, which is how the music is best known. Except for the final number, “The Death of Mélisande,” the music dexterously avoids the more emotional undercurrents of the play.

The Cello Concerto No. 1 (1872) by Fauré’s teacher Camille Saint-Saëns (1835–1921) inhabits another musical world entirely—as extroverted as the Fauré is understated, as direct as the Fauré is allusive. Its difference is obvious as soon as we hear its unrestrained opening gesture which, according to tonight’s soloist Julian Schwarz, is “as bravura a passage as there is in the repertoire”—and which is as instantly memorable as the openings of the Schumann and Grieg Piano Concertos. Formally, the work is equivocal, and can be considered either as a single movement in three sections or as a set of three interconnected movements (like the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto or like the Bates Violin Concerto we heard at this season’s opening concert). How does Julian see it? The thematic connections among the sections (something found in the Bates but not in the Mendelssohn) encourage him to treat it as a single movement—a decision that affects, for instance, his tempo choices. Take the middle section: “If one were to play it at a very slow tempo”—as you might, if it were a separate movement—“it would take the listener out of the piece as a whole. But if you play it in a more flowing manner, then it really just seems like the logical next section of the piece.” That continuity, coupled with the concerto’s relative brevity, helps the performer maintain the listener’s attention. “The nice thing about the one-movement work,” says Julian, “is that you never have a chance to tune out. If there’s a moment of break, it’s easy for the listener to disengage. But if it’s a continuous, constantly evolving piece, it can always be very interesting.”

Of course, the Saint-Saëns has held its position as one of the most popular concertos for the instrument not simply for its formal ingenuity, but even more for the brilliant way it “showcases the instrument in all its capacities and all its abilities, especially its register.” Julian elaborates: “One of the most interesting things about a cello is that the instrument can produce every note that the violin plays but that it also has a beautiful, low, burnished register.” As a result, the concerto can alternate flashy passages (which are, paradoxically, not always the most difficult to play) with darker, more introspective moments, including a passage toward the end that’s one of Julian’s favorites, “where the cello has a beautiful, singing theme in the lowest register. It just allows me to show the cello in its most idiomatic way, which is as a bass instrument in the bass register.” He also loves the coda, “a brilliant piece of cello writing. It’s sort of out of the blue, with a new theme and a gorgeous interplay between the solo cello and the first violin section. That brings the concerto full circle.”

The program concludes with the Symphony No. 3 (“Eroica”) (1804) by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827). The story of its dedication is often repeated. Beethoven had originally intended to dedicate the work to Napoleon, but ripped out the inscription when Napoleon declared himself emperor. Far more important than its programmatic intention, though, is its impact on the musical world—for the two hammer blows that launch the symphony can well be seen to crack the musical traditions of its time. The symphony shocked many of its early listeners for its length, its rhythmic vehemence, and especially what conductor Larry Loh calls its “unprecedented” treatment of harmony, in particular its “surprising shifts.” Indeed, the first movement wanders so much, harmonically, that it requires an exceptionally long coda to “affirm the E-flat major” of the movement. “Otherwise,” says Larry, “it would never feel like it had landed.” Yet in retrospect, while the work may have ushered in the romantic period (as many writers suggest), it didn’t definitively enter it—it is, as Larry sees it, a transitional work between the classical and romantic periods, which leaves a conductor in the position of having to decide where to strike the balance in performance.

What can we expect tonight? Larry certainly recognizes, even “embraces,” its “massive expansion, especially in terms of scale and expression.” Still, “from a stylistic point of view,” he says, “I approach it more like a classical symphony.” Thus, for example, Larry plays the opening two chords “absolutely in tempo.” He also avoids romanticizing the second movement funeral march. “It begins so unsuspectingly, and it’s kind of morbid and simple. I keep it really cold. I like to have the orchestra play the opening in an almost resigned way and then especially at the end. But there are so many surprises. There are places where he goes into C Major, where it’s almost like reflecting on better days and then it just returns, pulling you back.” Larry engages in a similar restraint in much of the third movement, too—a restraint that paradoxically increases the music’s power. “It’s very quiet for a long time, then, in a one bar crescendo, it just explodes. What I love to do with this is to repress any inclination to get loud, so when you have reached that moment, everything has to expand from pp to ff within one second. That’s just an incredible unleashing of excitement.” There’s a similar unleashing in the third movement’s furious coda, too. This leads us to the theme-and-variations finale “which has a similar frenetic energy, with all kinds of twists and turns.” No wonder the music, even more than two centuries after its composition, maintains its impact.

Peter J. Rabinowitz

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Artist Information:

Julian Schwarz

Born in Seattle into a musical family, cellist Julian Schwarz is already being recognized as a cellist destined to rank among the finest of the 21st century.

Mr. Schwarz made his orchestral debut at the age of 11 playing the Saint-Saens Concerto No. 1 with the Seattle Symphony with his father, Gerard Schwarz, on the podium. Since then, he has appeared with the Seattle, San Diego, Puerto Rico, Columbus (OH), Syracuse, Virginia, Sarasota, Grand Rapids, Omaha, Wichita and Modesto symphonies among others, and performed recitals at the Casals Festival in Puerto Rico and in Palm Springs. He also appears regularly on the stage of Bargemusic in New York City playing chamber music and recitals with his regular recital partner, pianist Marika Bournaki.

Mr. Schwarz’s recent and upcoming performance highlights include debuts with the Charlotte, Des Moines, West Virginia, Chicago Camerata, Toledo, Amarillo and Washington/Idaho symphonies, The Louisville Orchestra and Symphony Silicon Valley in San Jose; return engagements with the Hartford and Boca Raton symphonies and the Northwest Sinfonietta; and recitals in Palm Springs, Washington, DC, Pennsylvania and Nova Scotia. Internationally, he made his Australian debut with the Queensland Symphony in Brisbane as well as his debut in Hong Kong appearing at the Intimacy of Creativity Festival. He also returned to the Boca del Rio Orchestra in Veracruz, Mexico and made his debut with the Mexico City Philharmonic in May 2016.

No stranger to summer music festivals, Julian Schwarz has attended and performed at the Aspen, Interlochen, Eastern, California Summer and Encore music festivals. He has been the “Featured Young Artist” at both the Seattle Chamber Music Festival and the Cape Cod Music Festival and was chosen to participate and perform at the prestigious Verbier Festival in Switzerland. A member of the cello faculty at the Eastern Music Festival in North Carolina, he has performed the Brahms Double and the premiere of a concerto by Richard Danielpour, “A Prayer For Our Time,” with the festival orchestra. During the summer of 2016, he performs the Dvorak Cello Concerto with the same ensemble.

In August 2012, Julian Schwarz recorded the Samuel Jones Cello Concerto, which was written for him, with the newly formed All Star Orchestra, founded by Gerard Schwarz. The All Star Orchestra, comprised of orchestral musicians from major American orchestras, taped eight programs at that time, all of which were broadcast on public television in the fall of 2013 and then issued on DVD’s by Naxos. Mr. Schwarz’s previous recordings for Naxos include “In Memoriam” for the Music of Remembrance series and the Saint-Saens No. 1 and Haydn C Major cello concertos with the Seattle Symphony.

Julian Schwarz started piano lessons at the age of five and began his cello studies the following year with the late David Tonkonogui; subsequent teachers include Toby Saks, Lynn Harrell, Neal Cary and Ronald Leonard. He received his Bachelor of Music degree from The Juilliard School in New York City in May 2014 where he studied with Joel Krosnick, and his Master of Music degree, also at Juilliard, in May 2016. During the 16/17 season, he will serve as Mr. Krosnick’s teaching assistant. In August 2013, Mr. Schwarz was awarded first prize in the professional cello division of the inaugural Alice and Eleonore Schoenfeld International String Competition in Hong Kong.

Julian Schwarz currently performs on a cello made in Naples by Gennaro Gagliano in 1743.

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